Sir Winston Leonard Spencer Churchill (30 November 1874 – 24 January 1965) was a British statesman who served as the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1940 to 1945 and again from 1951 to 1955. Churchill was also an officer in the British Army, a historian, a writer and an artist. He won the Nobel Prize in Literature. Named the Greatest Briton of all time in a 2002 poll, Churchill is among the most influential people in British history, consistently ranking well in opinion polls of Prime Ministers of the United Kingdom.

  温斯顿·伦纳德·斯宾塞·丘吉尔( Winston Leonard Spencer Churchill,1874年11月30日-1965年1月24日),英国最伟大的政治家、历史学家、画家、演说家、作家、记者。



  The Harbor of the City of Havana


  Cienfuegos, 9 November 1895


  Most people have probably noticed that the initial difficulties of any undertaking are in many cases the most insuperable. The first few sentences, whether of a proposal of marriage or of a newspaper article, require more thought, and involve more effort, than any of those which follow. And if this is the case with those who are accustomed by experience to break the ice in either circumstance, how much more does it apply to the beginnings of the beginner. It is on account of these difficulties that I shall allow their enumeration to stand in place of further prelude, and plunge at once into the middle of the subject—and the harbor of the city of Havana.


  High up on the cliffs, as the ship enters the narrows, one sees the fortress of EI Moro, formerly a place of great strength, and commanding the channel to the port. It is now used only as a prison for political and military offenders, and as an occasional place of execution. Here it was that the sentence of death on Lieutenant Gallegos was carried out in May last. This officer had the charge of a small post with some fifty soldiers, and was unfortunate enough to be breakfasting in a café when the insurgents happened to pass, and so was taken prisoner, with all his men. The rebels let them go, but keep their arms, and the court-martial sentenced the lieutenant to be shot for neglect of duty.


  The town shows no sign of the insurrection, and business proceeds everywhere as usual. Passports are, however, strictly examined, and all baggage is searched with a view to discovering pistols or other arms. During the passage from Tampa on the boat the most violent reports of the condition of Havana were rife. Yellow fever was said to be prevalent, and the garrisonwas reported to have over 400 cases. As a matter of fact, there is really not much sickness, and what there is confined to the lower part of the town. What struck me most was the absence of any news. London may know much of what is going on in the island—New York is certain to know more—but Havana hears nothing. All the papers are strictly edited by the Government and are filled with foreign and altogether irrelevant topics. It was explained to me that while the Spanish authorities were masters of the art of suppressing the truth, the Cubans were adept at inventing falsehood. By this arrangement conflicting statements and inaccuracy are like assured. During the evening which I passed in the capital some volunteers marched in front, preceded by a band and surrounded by a great crowd. They were a fine lot of men—young, but well developed—and though they looked tired, marched jauntily, and were evidently much pleased with themselves. Their uniform was made of white cotton and they wore large straw hats of limp material, twisted into every conceivableshape. They were very dirty and did not preserve much order, but for all that they looked like soldiers and were well armed. These “volunteers”, of whom there are about 25,000 in all, take it in turn to garrison the different outlying towns, afterwards coming back for duty in Havana.


  In the diary you find proof that in situations which today would seem unbearable, you lived, looked around and wrote down observations, that this right hand moved then as it does today, when we may be wiser because we are able to look back upon our former condition, and for that very reason have got to admit the courage of our earlier striving in which we persisted even in sheer ignorance.

  奥地利小说家弗朗兹·卡夫卡在《坚持写日记的好处》(One Advantage in Keeping a Diary)中写道:“在日记中你可以找到证据,证明人们曾在今天看来难以忍受的境况中生活过、环顾过,并且还把观察结果记载下来,也就是这只右手曾像今天这样动过。我们由于有可能回顾过去的情形而变得更加聪明,为此就更有理由不得不承认我们那时的奋斗所具有的勇气,尽管在奋斗中不免存在着非常肤浅的无知。”


  The Harbor of the City of Havana


  Cienfuegos, 9 November 1985


  Next day we started for Santa Clara, which is the Captain General’s headquarters. As far as Colon the journey is safe, but thenceforward the country is much disturbed. The insurgents have given notice that they will wreck any train carrying troops, and have several times succeeded in so doing. Every station from Colon to Santa Clara is a small fort. Sometimes it is a stockade of logs, sometimes a loopholed house or a stone breastwork; all have a garrison of from fifteen to twenty men. Every bridge has to be guarded also by a block houseor other defensive work, as the rebels cut the supports through and so upset the trains. In fact, they have tried every sort of dodge in this respect. One of the cleverest of these is to loosen a rail and to fasten a wire to it. When the train comes along this wire is pulled, and the result often fully repays their labors. Dynamite is also thrown, but the insurgents appear not to understand its employment, as only two explosions have taken place so far, though there have been many attempts. At Santa Domingo a pilot engineand an armored-carare added to the train, as the rebels often indulge in target practice — from a respectful distance. In the car rides the escort, the passengers being permitted the privilege of using the ordinarycompartments. When we reached this place the line thence to Santa Clara had just been cut, and the traffic had to go round by Gruces, thus causing a great delay. On arrival there it was announced that the train which preceded ours, and in which was General Valdez, had been thrown off the line a few miles beyond Santa Domingo, and that fifteen of its occupants had been severely injured. This had been affected by weakening the supports of a small culvert. The General fortunately escaped uninjured, and at once started up country. Marshal Campos, to whose headquarters we went, received us very kindly, and readily gave us the necessary passes and letters. Unfortunately, we found that the column of General Valdez was already twenty miles away, through a country infestedby the enemy, and it would therefore be necessary to go to Cienfuegos, thence by steamer to Tuna, and from there on to Sancti Spiritus. Though this route forms two sides of a triangle, it is — Euclid not withstanding — shorter than the other, and we shall catch the column there.


  The insurrection shows no sign of abating, and the insurgents gain adherentscontinually. There is no doubt that they possess the sympathy of the entire population, and hence have constant and accurate intelligence. On the other hand Spain is equally determined to crush them, and is even now pouring in fresh troops by the thousand. How it will end is impossible to say, but whoever wins and whatever may be the results, the suffering and misery of the entire community is certain. The struggle is now entering upon a crucial stage. Maximo Gomez has said openly that he will not allow the grinding of the sugar cane. Any planter who does so will have his plantation burned. In the face of this threat the authorities are powerless. The cane is ripe, fit for cutting, and very combustible. It was explained to me that a piece of phosphorous, coated with wax, would be the probable instrument of the incendiarists. This little pill is fastened to the tail of the Cuban grass snake, a common and inoffensive creature, which is then set loose. The sun melts the wax and ignites the phosphorous, and the result is a conflagration, without any possible clue as to its authorship. No amount of military protection or patrolling can guard against this form of outrage, and the general impression is that the planters will not grind. The importance of this cannot be over-estimated. It means the paralyzing of the staple industry of the country and the ruin of the entire island. It means bankruptcy to the planter and starvation to the laborer, and it will leave a mark upon Cuba which will take many years of plenty and good government to efface.

  暴动没有显出减弱的迹象,而且暴动的追随者还在不断增多。毫无疑问,他们拥有全体民众的同情,所以才会不断获得准确的情报。另一方面,西班牙也同样下定决心要镇压他们,甚至现在还在大批地派来增援部队。很难说结果会怎样,但不论哪方获得胜利,不论是什么结果,全体国民要遭受一场苦难是肯定的。现在,斗争已经进入关键阶段。马克西莫·戈麦斯曾公开说,他不允许任何人研磨蔗糖。任何种植园主如果这样做的话,其种植园将被烧掉。面对这样的恐吓,当局毫无办法,甘蔗已经熟了,正是收割的时候,也是非常易燃的时候。有人向我解释说,一片磷在外面裹上一层蜡,就可以成为纵火者的工具。把一颗这样的小丸子绑在一条古巴草蛇 — 一种常见的但没有伤害性的蛇 — 的尾巴上,然后把它放走。太阳将蜡丸晒化,磷一热便燃烧起来,其结果就是一场大火灾,而关于火灾的根源则不可能有任何线索。对于这种形式的暴行,再多的军事保护或军事巡逻都无济于事,所以普遍的印象是种植园主都不会研磨蔗糖。不能过高估计这样做的重要性。它意味着这个国家主要产业的瘫痪和整个岛屿的毁灭。它意味着甘蔗种植园主的破产和种植工人的挨饿,并将给古巴留下一个伤痕,需要用多少年的时间和有能力的政府才能予以消除。

  The twofoldobject of the rebels in taking this momentous step is to make plain to the entire world the power they have – and so obtain recognition as belligerentsfrom the United States — and by plunging their country into indescribablewoe to procure the intervention of some European Power. Looked at from any standpoint, it is a dreadful and a desperate remedy, and one which neither restriction of liberty nor persistent bad government can fully justify. It is, nevertheless, a course open to the dangerous and determined men who are in revolt, and one which there is every reason to believe they will adopt.

  起义者采取这种严重的步骤有双重目的,一是向全世界展示他们所拥有的力量 — 由此获得美国对其作为交战一方的承认 — 二是把他们的国家推向难以形容的灾难,以促成欧洲列强的干预。无论从哪种立场来看,这都是一个可怕的和绝望的补救办法,是一个既不能限制自由,又不想保持坏政府能够合法统治下去的办法。所以不管怎么说,这就是反抗运动中的那些危险而又坚定的分子所走的路,也完全有理由相信他们要选择走这样的路。